Manually create and send raw TCP/IP packets
In this chapter we are going to to use our knowledge on packets to manually craft and put them on the wire.
We now want to craft a packet and send it through the network. Let’s start by identifying the properties our packet should have:
- IPv4 packet
- TCP SYN packet
- from our client (10.10.10.2) to the server (10.10.10.1)
- from port 12345 to port 80
- fill up the other headers with the necessary data
We will use our packet blueprints from the previous part of this series to aid us in creating the packet:
Based on our knowledge from the previous parts of this series we filled our blueprint with the relevant values (Identification and Window Size are just random in this case). As a small exercise, try to understand the meaning behind the values in Total Length and Data Offset.
You might have seen, that two values are missing for now, the Header Checksum for the IP segment and the Checksum from the TCP segment.
TCP Checksum & IP Header Checksum
Let’s start with the TCP checksum. Remembering from the first part of this series we know, that the checksum consists of values of the TCP Header itself, as well as a pseudo-header. For the calculations, all necessary values are used in 16 bit words and added together as shown below. In case the value isn’t 16 bit long, it will be prepended with zeros.
|Source Address (IP)||0x0a0a + 0x0a02 +||10.10.10.2|
|Destination Address (IP)||0x0a0a + 0x0a01 +||10.10.10.1|
|TCP length (including the data part) in byte
(no actual header field, has to be counted!)
|0x0014 +||20 bytes (= 14 in hex)|
|Source + Destination Port||0x3039 + 0x0050 +||1234 and 80|
|Sequence Number||0x0000 + 0x0000 +||00 00 00 00|
|Acknowledgement Number||0x0000 + 0x0000 +||00 00 00 00|
|Data Offset, Reserved, Flags, Window Size||0x5002 + 0x7110 +||0101 000 000000010 and 71 10|
|Checksum (set to 0x0000 in calculation), Urgent Pointer||0x0000 + 0x0000 =|
|Removing the carryover||0x19cc + 0x0001 = 0x19cd|
|Negation with 0xffff||0xffff – 0x19cd =|
IP Header Checksum
The IP header checksum is easy to calculate. It consists out of all values in the IP header, again added in 16 bit words and prepended with zeros in case the value is too short:
|Version, IHL, Type of Service + Total Length||0x4500 + 0x0028 +||–|
|Identification + Flags, Fragment Offset||0xabcd + 0x0000 +||–|
|TTL, Protocol + Header Checksum (0x0000 in calculation)||0x4006 + 0x0000 +||–|
|Source Address (IP)||0x0a0a + 0x0a02 +||10.10.10.2|
|Destination Address (IP)||0x0a0a + 0x0a01 =||10.10.10.1|
|Removing the carryover||0x5912 + 0x0001 = 0x5913|
|Negation with 0xffff||0xffff – 0x5913 =|
As you could see, both checksums follow the same algorithm, just their input values are different.
Now let’s put the calculated checksums in our blueprint. For better readability, they are arranged like this:
Sending a self crafted packet
After we have now manually created our first TCP/IP packet, let’s put it on the wire. As this is a
[SYN] packet we are sending to our webserver, we expect him to respond with a
[SYN, ACK] if everything works as planned. For this example we are going to use Python’s built-in socket module:
import socket s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_RAW, socket.IPPROTO_TCP) s.setsockopt(socket.IPPROTO_IP, socket.IP_HDRINCL, 1) ip_header = b'\x45\x00\x00\x28' # Version, IHL, Type of Service | Total Length ip_header += b'\xab\xcd\x00\x00' # Identification | Flags, Fragment Offset ip_header += b'\x40\x06\xa6\xec' # TTL, Protocol | Header Checksum ip_header += b'\x0a\x0a\x0a\x02' # Source Address ip_header += b'\x0a\x0a\x0a\x01' # Destination Address tcp_header = b'\x30\x39\x00\x50' # Source Port | Destination Port tcp_header += b'\x00\x00\x00\x00' # Sequence Number tcp_header += b'\x00\x00\x00\x00' # Acknowledgement Number tcp_header += b'\x50\x02\x71\x10' # Data Offset, Reserved, Flags | Window Size tcp_header += b'\xe6\x32\x00\x00' # Checksum | Urgent Pointer packet = ip_header + tcp_header s.sendto(packet, ('10.10.10.1', 0))
We are creating a socket s out of the Internet Protocol family
AF_INET, in “raw” mode
SOCK_RAW which will be sending TCP packets
IPPROTO_TCP. With the
setsockopt() we tell the kernel not to generate an IP header, since we are providing it ourselves. For further details on the Python socket module, I recommend the Python documentation on sockets. When working with raw sockets in scripts, most operating system require advanced privileges (e.g. root user) to run them:
root@kali:~# python3 send_first_packet.py
Utilizing Wireshark, we observe what happens when we send the packet:
As expected, our Python script sends a
[SYN] packet to port 80 of our webserver. This server replies with a
[SYN, ACK], the second step of a typical TCP three-way handshake. The third packet however is a
[RST] reset sent from our client to the server. This happened because of the value we set as source port of our packet. Despite providing 12345 as source port, there is no application on our side listening on that port to accept the incoming
[SYN, ACK]. Therefore, a reset packet is sent, and the connection establishment is canceled.
In case you don’t get the upper result, check whether your calculated checksums are correct. To verify them in Wireshark, go: Right click (on any packet) > Protocol Preferences > “Validate the TCP checksum if possible”.
Improving our crafted packet
Having again a closer look at the first packet we sent, we will see that there are 14 more bytes in front of our IP header (highlighted in blue).
These bytes are the ethernet layer, the layer below the internet and transport layer:
|Destination MAC Address||Source MAC Address||Protocol Type|
|00 0c 29 d3 be d6||00 0c 29 e0 c4 af||08 00 (= IPv4)|
Since we want to create the complete packet by hand, we need to slightly modify our Python script by manually adding the ethernet layer:
import socket s = socket.socket(socket.AF_PACKET, socket.SOCK_RAW) s.bind(("eth0", 0)) ethernet = b'\x00\x0c\x29\xd3\xbe\xd6' # MAC Address Destination ethernet += b'\x00\x0c\x29\xe0\xc4\xaf' # MAC Address Source ethernet += b'\x08\x00' # Protocol-Type: IPv4 ip_header = b'\x45\x00\x00\x28' # Version, IHL, Type of Service | Total Length ip_header += b'\xab\xcd\x00\x00' # Identification | Flags, Fragment Offset ip_header += b'\x40\x06\xa6\xec' # TTL, Protocol | Header Checksum ip_header += b'\x0a\x0a\x0a\x02' # Source Address ip_header += b'\x0a\x0a\x0a\x01' # Destination Address tcp_header = b'\x30\x39\x00\x50' # Source Port | Destination Port tcp_header += b'\x00\x00\x00\x00' # Sequence Number tcp_header += b'\x00\x00\x00\x00' # Acknowledgement Number tcp_header += b'\x50\x02\x71\x10' # Data Offset, Reserved, Flags | Window Size tcp_header += b'\xe6\x32\x00\x00' # Checksum | Urgent Pointer packet = ethernet + ip_header + tcp_header s.send(packet)
We are again creating a “raw” socket, but this time from the address family “packet”, allowing us to play on a very low protocol level. Then we bind the socket to our network interface
eth0 (might be a different one for you; check that e.g. with “ifconfig” command).
root@kali:~# python3 send_first_packet_v2.py
After executing the new script we observe the output of Wireshark again:
Everything worked as expected, we have the start of the three-way handshake followed by the reset.
Now we have learned how we can manually create any kind TCP/IP packet we want to. This knowledge has a very large application range, e.g. starting from low level programming to pentesting and fuzzing. An example of what you can do with this will be shown in the next part of the tutorial series where we create a stealth port scanner.